On 21 March 2014 the Brazilian Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica, (“CADE”), announced that its investigation into trains and subways in 5 Brazilian states had turned up evidence of cartel activity. The investigation is one of the largest ever conducted in Brazil and includes several multinational companies.
The investigation is focused on train and subway procurements between 1998 and 2013. 18 companies and 109 employees are accused of participation. A search and seizure operation in July 2013, carried out by CADE, produced evidence of possible bid-rigging in 15 public tenders worth a total of BRL 9.4 billion. The investigation arose from participation in a leniency programme by the German conglomerate Siemens.
In a 200-page report, CADE’s investigators claim the subway contractors divided the tenders among themselves by agreeing bids in advance. CADE has alleged that contractors accepted payments from rivals for not participating in the tenders.
The politically sensitive investigation has attracted more media attention than any previous cartel investigation in Brazil, due to suggestions that public officials were aware of the alleged conspiracy. Siemens’ voluntary disclosure surfaced just weeks before a contract for a 318-mile high-speed line between the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro came up for bidding. Under Brazilian law the companies involved could be fined 20% of their turnover. Balfour Beatty, Caterpillar, Alstom and Mitsui are included within the scope of the investigation, which has reportedly proceeded slowly due to the quantity of information seized in the July 2013 raids.
Public prosecutors in São Paulo have launched a parallel investigation into whether illegal kickbacks were paid to government officials to obtain lucrative contracts for the construction, fitting and maintenance of metro trains and lines. Observers have suggested that the case could lead to the first prison sentences for cartel activity in Brazilian history.