Russia

Cartel conduct by individuals is criminalised by the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.

The offence

Under article 178 of the Criminal Code non-admittance, restriction or elimination of competition by entering into agreements that limit competition is a criminal offence, if such agreements either:

  1. resulted in major damage (over 1 million roubles) to individuals, organisations or the government; or
  2. major revenue for the parties to the agreement (over 5 million roubles).

Sanctions

Individuals

  • a fine of between 300,000 and 500,000 roubles, or the person’s salary or other revenue for a period of one to two years. This can be increased to 1 million roubles or the person’s revenue for up to five years in aggravating circumstances;
  • compulsory labour for a term of three years with a possible prohibition on carrying out holding certain positions or carrying out certain activities; or
  • between three and seven years’ imprisonment with a possible prohibition on carrying out holding certain positions or carrying out certain activities.

Corporations

Cartel conduct is not criminalised

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