Cartel conduct by individuals is criminalised by the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.
Under article 178 of the Criminal Code non-admittance, restriction or elimination of competition by entering into agreements that limit competition is a criminal offence, if such agreements either:
resulted in major damage (over 1 million roubles) to individuals, organisations or the government; or
major revenue for the parties to the agreement (over 5 million roubles).
- a fine of between 300,000 and 500,000 roubles, or the person’s salary or other revenue for a period of one to two years. This can be increased to 1 million roubles or the person’s revenue for up to five years in aggravating circumstances;
- compulsory labour for a term of three years with a possible prohibition on carrying out holding certain positions or carrying out certain activities; or
- between three and seven years’ imprisonment with a possible prohibition on carrying out holding certain positions or carrying out certain activities.
Cartel conduct is not criminalised